General Circulation: Theory

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A discussion of the Hadley and extra-tropical circulation regimes can be found in Section 8.2 of the notes here.

A discussion of the energetics of the thermal wind equation and large-scale heat transport in the atmosphere can be found in Section 8.3 and 8.4 respectively here.

Below is a schematic diagram of the observed atmospheric general circulation for annual- averaged conditions. The upper level westerlies are shaded to reveal the core of the subtropical jet stream on the poleward flank of the Hadley circulation. The surface westerlies and surface trade winds are also marked, as are the highs and lows of middle latitudes. Only the northern hemisphere is shown. The vertical scale is greatly exaggerated.

Suggestions for Further Reading:

Lorenz, Edward N. The Nature and Theory of the General Circulation of the Atmosphere. World Meteorological Organization, 1967.